A state in which the current oxygen supply is inadequate for the current physiological needs of tissue. Causes of ischemia can be pathological, biochemical, anatomical or as a result of overuse or facilitation. Ischemia reduces the level of oxygen, nutrients, and waste removal and the tension produced by the resultant muscle shortening can alter joint mechanics and/or entrap neural structures. Ischemia also leads to the production of trigger points.
Localized areas within muscle bellies or at tendinous attachments which, when sufficiently provoked, produce a referral pattern to a target zone. The referral pattern may include pain, tingling, numbness, itching or other sensations.
Compression (by a bony structure) or entrapment (by connective tissue) of neural structures may result in muscle contraction disturbances, vasomotion, pain impulses, reflexes mechanisms and disturbances in sympathetic activity.
Postural and Biomechanical Dysfunction
Repeated postural and biomechanical insults over a period of time, combined with the somatic effects of emotional and psychological origin, will often present altered patters of tense, shortened, bunched, fatigued and, ultimately, fibrotic tissues with resultant alterations from healthy postural positioning.
Nutritional deficiencies/imbalances, sensitivities, allergies and stimulants all play roles in myofascial health as well as hormonal, emotional and mental health.
The degree and type of the emotional and stress loads the individual is carrying can influence various systems of the body. Ultimately, if excessive or prolonged, these factors can results in distress and disease.